What influences motivation in Physical Education? A multilevel approach for identifying climate determinants of achievement motivation

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Bibliographic Details
Title translated into German:Was beeinflusst die Motivation im Sportunterricht ? Ein mehrstufiger Ansatz zur Identifizierung von Klimafaktoren der Leistungsmotivation
Author:Niederkofler, Benjamin; Herrmann, Christian; Gerlach, Erin; Seelig, Harald
Published in:Psychological test and assessment modeling
Published:57 (2015), 1 (Identifying effective learning environments), S. 70-93, Lit.
Format: Publications (Database SPOLIT)
Publication Type: Journal article
Media type: Print resource Electronic resource (online)
ISSN:2190-0493, 2190-0507
Online Access:
Identification number:PU201606004009

Author's abstract

The present research tested the longitudinal and hierarchical influences of students’ climate perception on the development of achievement motives in Physical Education (PE). Students from Switzerland (N = 919; 45 classes; 50.1% female, age: M = 13.2, SD = 0.6) responded to the questionnaire. Perceived climate was measured using the German LASSO scales (Von Saldern & Littig, 1987), namely teacher care, classmate cooperativeness and satisfaction with teaching. To assess sport specific achievement motives (Hope of Success, HS; Fear of Failure, FF), we used a validated German scale from Elbe, Wenhold, and Müller (2005). Multilevel analysis revealed a link between perceived climate on change of students’ motivation in PE. The investigation also identified factors determining motivation decline caused by the classroom environment and teachers. Moreover, results showed significant gender effects on both motives and a significant impact of individual teacher care on the HS. This was also found for individual and aggregated satisfaction with teaching. The latter was significant for FF on both levels. Interestingly, teacher care showed inhibitory effects on both achievement motives. These findings suggest that students in PE may have unique behaviour which requires a different teaching approach than in normal classroom. This describes a specific learning environment in PE classes. Results are discussed based on students’ unique needs and gender effects.