Effects of jump training with negative versus positive loading on jumping mechanics

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Bibliographic Details
Title translated into German:Auswirkungen von Sprungtraining mit negativer versus positiver Belastung der Sprungmechaniken
Author:Markovic, Goran; Vuk, S.; Jaric, S.
Published in:International journal of sports medicine
Published:32 (2011), 5, S. 365-372, Lit.
Format: Publications (Database SPOLIT)
Publication Type: Journal article
Media type: Print resource
ISSN:0172-4622, 1439-3964
Online Access:
Identification number:PU201111009303


We examined the effects of jump training with negative (−30% of the subject's body weight (BW)) vs. positive loading (+30% BW) on the mechanical behaviour of leg extensor muscles. 32 men were divided into control (CG), negative loading (NLG), or positive loading training group (PLG). Both training groups performed maximal effort countermovement jumps (CMJ) over a 7-week training period. The impact of training on the mechanical behaviour of leg extensor muscles was assessed through CMJ performed with external loads ranging from −30% BW to +30% BW. Both training groups showed significant (P≤0.013) increase in BW CMJ height (NLG: 9%, effect size (ES)=0.85, vs. PLG: 3.4%, ES=0.31), peak jumping velocity (vpeak; NLG: 4.1%; ES=0.80, P=0.011, vs. PLG: 1.4%, ES=0.24; P=0.017), and depth of the countermovement (Δhecc; NLG: 20%; ES=−1.64, P=0.004, vs. PLG: 11.4%; ES=−0.86, P=0.015). Although the increase in both the vpeak and Δhecc were expected to reduce the recorded ground reaction force, the indices of force- and power-production characteristics of CMJ remained unchanged. Finally, NLG (but not PLG) suggested load-specific improvement in the movement kinematic and kinetic patterns. Overall, the observed results revealed a rather novel finding regarding the effectiveness of negative loading in enhancing CMJ performance which could be of potential importance for further development of routine training protocols. Although the involved biomechanical and neuromuscular mechanisms need further exploration, the improved performance could be partly based on an altered jumping pattern that utilizes an enhanced ability of leg extensors to provide kinetic and power output during the concentric jump phase. Verf.-Referat