Using the simple sample count to estimate the frequency of prescription drug neuroenhancement in a sample of Jordan employees

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Bibliographic Details
Title translated into German:Mit der einfachen Stichprobenanzahl die Häufigkeit der verschreibungspflichtigen Arzneimittel-Neuroenhancement in einer Stichprobe von Jordanien schätzen
Author:Wolff, Wanja; Sandouqa, Yaser; Brand, Ralf
Published in:The international journal of drug policy
Published:31 (2016), S. 51-55, Lit.
Format: Publications (Database SPOLIT)
Publication Type: Journal article
Media type: Electronic resource (online) Print resource
ISSN:1873-4758, 0955-3959
Online Access:
Identification number:PU201707005589

Author's abstract

Background: Epidemiological research indicates that the use of prescription drugs to enhance cognitive functioning is prevalent in Western countries, however, research on this phenomenon in Arab countries is lacking. Our study aimed to investigate the frequency of neuroenhancement (NE) using prescription drugs in a sample of employees in Jordan. Methods: A sample of 1186 employees (37.11 ± 8.37 years old, 495 female), of whom 723 (35.65 ± 7.53 years old, 396 female) served as teachers, completed a paper–pencil questionnaire. The single sample count technique (SSC) was used in order to secure confidential, self-reporting of prescription drug NE. Results. The 12-month prevalence of NE, estimated with the SSC was 15.43%. At 26.16%, the prevalence estimate was markedly higher in the subsample of teachers compared to non-teachers, 0.29%. Surprisingly, 336 participants did not use the SSC and directly affirmed or denied prescription drug NE. These direct responses yielded a prevalence of 11.57% for the full sample, 9.73% for the teachers and 15.60% for the non-teachers. Conclusion: This is the first study of the frequency of NE in an Arab sample. Results indicate that the use of prescription drug NE is not limited to Western countries and that teachers in Jordan might constitute a high-risk population. Further, participants seem to differ in their use of indirect estimation methods for reporting prescription drug NE. For future research, it might be useful to triangulate standard self-reports and indirect estimation methods to assess NE. Possible cultural differences and specific high-risk populations for NE should be investigated further.