Implicit and explicit attitudes to sponsors and ambushers

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Bibliographic Details
Title translated into German:Implizite und explizite Einstellungen zu Sponsoren und Ambusher
Author:Königstorfer, Jörg; Gröppel-Klein, Andrea
Published in:European sport management quarterly : ESMQ
Published:12 (2012), 5, S. 477-499, Lit.
Format: Publications (Database SPOLIT)
Publication Type: Journal article
Media type: Print resource
ISSN:1618-4742, 1746-031X
Online Access:
Identification number:PU201305003817


There is increasing evidence that unconscious processing of sponsorship messages predominates over conscious processing. Ambushers may profit from this because sport spectators are often not aware that brands associate themselves with events without purchasing sponsorship rights. This research aims to assess differences in implicit and explicit measures of the success of a sponsorship strategy compared with ambushing. Study 1 uses the Implicit Association Test to show that the implicit brand-event linkage, measured via behavioral reaction times that cannot be cognitively controlled, is closer for sponsors (versus ambushers) of global sporting events. Study 2 shows that sponsors (versus ambushers) generate higher long-term brand awareness. Spectators' attitude to the protection of sponsorship rights is determined by both attitude to commercialization in sports and attitude to event organizers; however, it does not negatively affect explicit brand attitudes to ambushers. The study derives theoretical and practical implications for both sponsorship and ambush marketing strategies. Verf.-Referat