Correlati psicofisiologici di un atto motorio finalizzato e addestramento

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Bibliographic Details
Title translated into German:Psychophysiologische Korrelate einer zielgerichteten Bewegung und deren Training
Author:Morocutti, C.; Amabile, G.; Fattaposta, F.; Marinozzi, G.; Pigozzi, F.; Parisi, A.; DiLuigi, L.
Published in:Medicina dello sport
Published:47 (1994), 4 , S. 547-551, Lit.
Format: Publications (Database SPOLIT)
Publication Type: Journal article
Media type: Print resource
Language:Italian
ISSN:0025-7826, 1827-1863
Keywords:
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Identification number:PU199603106521
Source:BISp

Author's abstract

Skilled motor action is a complex phenomenon, which requires a motor planning and mechanisms of control over the movement itself of the central nervous system. It depends also on learning, which makes motor preparation an automatic process. Human goal-directed movements occur through proper integration of cognitive, sensory-motor and motivational functions and they reflect a correct subject-environment interaction, depending on a continuous updating of the strategy on the basis of performance's result. It is well known that skill acquisition is due to a repetitive, programmed motor activity, but it is unclear if different levels of motor skill reflect electrophysiological changes of brain activity. So we studied, by means of electrophysiological techniques, the effects of an intensive, long-term psychomotor training on cerebral bioelectrical activity, with the aim to verify the existence of psychophysiological parameters which could be modified by practice. Movement Related Brain Macropotentials (MRBMs) were recorded in 16 subjects of the Italian Pentathlon Federation, divided into two groups on the basis of their experience in gun shooting. In our experimental design we used a self-paced, goal-directed bimanual task, the Skilled Motor Perceptual Task (SMPT). It consists in starting a sweep of an oscilloscope trace by a button press with the left index finger and stopping it in predetermined target area, corresponding to a time interval between 40 and 60 msec after the start, by pushing an other button with the right index finger. This task engages the subject to plan motor action before its execution, to verify the accuracy of the performances in order to update his motor strategies, till an automatic pre-programmed skilled movements is made. MRBMs consist of various components, the most investigated one is the Bereitschaftspotential (BP). This slow negative shift rises 600-1200 msec before the start of motor activity and reflects cerebral processes related to motor planning. An other component, occurring only when the subject expects and receives the one-line feedback on his performance as during the execution of SMPT, is a large positive potential called Skilled Performance Positivity (SPP). Its peak comes out approximately 400 msec after the onset of motor activity. From a psychological point of view SPP reflects the subject's awareness of success or failure in performance. Results of our study showed variation of BP amplitude and SPP latency related to different levels of training. So we think that MRBMs are an useful, non invasive, tool to evaluate bioelectrical changes in brain activity which occur during learning of a skilled motor act. Verf.-Referat